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History of National Congress


The Foundation Years


Demand for Equitable Government through Administrative Reforms Indian National Congress
Concern for the removal of Poverty.
Resolution deploring :


  • The growing impoverishment of the people
  • The wealth of the country being drained away
  • The condition of the ryots steadily deterioration since 1848 nearly 40 million people having only one meal a day and some times not even that
  • Annual Sessions of the Congress Party held in different venues every year
  • Provincial Conferences organised to foster country-wide involvement
  • Concrete steps taken to organise Public Opinion in Great Britian in favour of the Indian viewpoint
  • Thrust on seeking Representation in Government
  • Madan Mohan Malaviya – “No taxation without representation”

July 1889 Formation of British Committee of the Indian National Congress with Offices in London to put pressure on Parliament in Great Britian.

1892 Dadabhai Naoroji elected to British Parliament in Great Britian.

1892 India Councils Act a major victory for Congress but it still did not envisage elected representation.


1885 BOMBAY W. C. BONNERJEE
1886 CALCUTTA DADABHAI NAOROJI
1887 MADRAS BADRUDDIN TYABJI
1888 ALLAHABAD GEORGE YULE
1889 BOMBAY SIR WILLIAM WEDDERBURN
1890 CALCUTTA SIR PHEROZESHAH MEHTA
1891 NAGPUR P. ANANDA CHARLU
1892 ALLAHABAD W. C. BONNERJEE
1893 LAHORE DADABHAI NAOROJI
1894 MADRAS ALFRED WEBB

Consolidation And Beyond


  • Demand for Fiscal Responsibility
  • Demand for Indianisation of Services
  • Protest against economic emasculation
  • Government insensitive to Natural disasters
  • Famine Plague Floods
  • Lokmanya Tilak works for the famine affected polpulace of Pune – accused of inciting violence by his writings in “Kesari” – imprisoned
  • The Curzon Vice-Royalty – many repressive measaures
  • Sedition Act curbing the elementary liberties of the people
  • Official Secrets Act with burden of proof of innocence shifted onto the accused
  • Protest against proposed Partition of Bengal along communal lines

1896 Resolution blaming the British for creating the Famine

1899 First Party Constitution framed

1900 British reaction to growing Congress Movement – curb availability of Education to Indians – Universities Act seeks to limit spread of English education

1901 Mahatma Gandhi appears on the Congress platform for the first time seeking support for the struggle in South Africa


1895 PUNE SURENDRANATH BANNERJEE
1896 CALCUTTA RAHIMTULLA M. SAYANI
1897 AMRAVATI C. SANKARAN NAIR
1898 MADRAS ANANDA MOHAN BOSE
1899 LUCKNOW ROMESH CHANDERDUTTA
1900 LAHORE N. G. CHANDAVARKAR
1901 CALCUTTA SIR DINSHAW EDULJEE WACHA
1902 AHMEDABAD SURENDRANATH BANNERJEE
1903 MADRAS LALMOHAN GHOSH
1904 BOMBAY SIR HENRY COTTON

Demand For Self Government


  • Reaction to the Curzon Regime
  • Widespread protests against the Partition of Bengal – blatantly promoted by Lord Curzon as the creation of a Muslim Enclave
  • Confrontation between the Moderates in the Congress seeking change through constitutional means and peaceful
  • Agitation and the Extremist younger elements seeking
  • Change through violence if necessary

1906 Demand for Swaraj Boycott of British Goods

1907 First Split in Congress between Moderates and Extremists – the Moderates retain control of the Organisation

1909 Minto-Morley Reforms creating the Indian Councils gave representation but also gave impetus to the virus of Communalism by providing for separate electorates

1909 First signs of strain in Hindu-Muslim relations

1911 The partition of Bengal is annulled


1905 BENARES GOPAL KRISHNA GOKHALE
1906 CALCUTTA DADABHAI NAOROJI
1907 SURAT RASHBIHARI GHOSH
1908 MADRAS RASHBIHARI GHOSH
1909 LAHORE PT MADAN MOHAN MALAVIYA
1910 ALLAHABAD SIR WILLIAM WEDDERBURN
1911 CALCUTTA PT BISHAN NARAYAN DAR
1912 BANKIPUR R. N. MUDHOLKAR
1913 KARACH NAWAB SYED MOHD BAHADUR
1914 MADRAS BHUPENDRA NATH BOSE

The Foundations Of Independent India


  • The Home Rule Movement
  • The Advent Of Gandhi
  • The Khilafat Movement
  • The Non-Cooperation Movement

1916 Lucknow Pact between the Congress and the Muslim league

1917 Proposal for a Congress Flag (later to become the National Tricolour)

1917 Principle of Linguisitic Division accepted – foundation for the eventual creation of states by linguistic identity

1917 Gandhiji introduces Satyagraha as a potent weapon of political protest in Champaran

1918 Satyagraha in Gujarat successful

1919 Gandhiji organises countrywide Satyagraha against the RowlattAct

1919 Jallianwala Bagh Massacre 1919 Gandhiji organises countrywide Satyagraha against the RowlattAct

1920 Khilafat Movement

1920 Gandhiji tours the country to organise the Non-Cooperation Movement

1920 The Congress becomes a Mass Movement

1920 The Country United under Mahatma Gandhi

1922 Gandhiji arrested

1924 Gandhiji’s 21 day fast against Communal Disturbances


1915 BOMBAY LORD S.P. SINHA
1916 LUCKNOW AMBICA CHARAN MAZUMDAR
1917 CALCUTTA DR ANNIE BESANT
1918 BOMBAY SYED HASAN IMAM
1918 DELHI PT MADAN MOHAN MALAVIYA
1919 AMRITSAR PT MOTILAL NEHRU
1920 CALCUTTA LALA LAJPAT RAI
1920 NAGPUR C. VIJAYARAGHAVACHARIAR
1921 AHMEDABAD HAKIM AJMAL KHAN
1922 GAYA DESHBANDHU CHITTARANJAN DAS
1923 MAULANA MOHD ALI
1923 DELHI MAULANA ABUL KALAM AZAD
1924 BELGAUM MAHATMA GANDHI

The Demand For Complete Independence


  • Gandhi – Irwin Pact
  • Definition Of Fundamental Rights

1925 Adoption of Hindi as the Official Language for the AICC Sessions

1926 Announcement of Simon Commission for Proposing Constitutional Reforms for India

1927 Resolution boycotting the Simon Commission

1928 Successful All India Hartal on arrival of Simon Commission

1928 All Party Committee appointed under Pt Motilal Nehru to draft a Consititution for Independent India

1928 Bardoli Satyagraha successful under Sardar Patel

1929 Irwin-Gandhi talks

1929 Resolution demanding Complete Independence

1930 Adoption of 26th January as “Purna Swaraj Day”

1930 Call for Civil Disobedience

1930 Salt Satyagraha – Dandi March

1930 All major Congress Leaders arrested

1930 AICC Working Committee declared unlawful body

1930 Congress opposition to Round table Conference

1931 Fundamental Rights defined

1931 AICC Working Committee Members released – Congress invited by Viceroy to join deliberations for the future of India

1931 Gandhi authorised to negotiate on behalf of the Congress

1931 Gandhi – Irwin Pact


1925 KANPUR SAROJINI NAIDU
1926 GAUHATI S. SRINIVASA IYENGAR
1927 MADRAS DR MUKHTAR AHMED ANSARI
1928 CALCUTTA PT MOTILAL NEHRU
1929 LAHORE PT JAWAHARLAL NEHRU
1930    
1931 KARACHI SARDAR VALLABHABHAI PATEL
1932 DELHI PT MADAN MOHAN MALAVIYA
1933 CALCUTTA MRS NELLIE SENGUPTA
1934 BOMBAY DR RAJENDRA PRASAD

The Final Stage


  • The Demand For Immediate Freedom
  • Mass Satyagraha

1935 The Government of India Act

1935 Gandhiji decides to concentrate on Social Reform

1935 Congress condemns the new Constitution but decides to contest Elections

1936 Nehru’s Presidential address condemns Fascism

1937 Congress wins Elections in 5 out of 9 Provinces

1939 Resignation of Congress Ministries and withdrawal from the Legislative Process

1939 Demand for a Constituent assembly to be elected by Universal Franchise

1940 Non-Cooperation in the War Effort

1940 Call for a National Government

1940 9th August 1942 Quit India Resolution

1940 Mass Arrests leading to All India Public Protest

1943-44 Allied victories in the war leading to intransigent British position

1943-44 Gandhiji and Congress leaders released from Prison but British refuse to negotiate

1943-44 Jinnah adamant on Partition

1945 Simla Conference fails

1946 INA Trial

1946 Naval Mutiny

1946 Cabinet Mission to decide fate of India

1946 Congress wins an overwhelming majority in Elections to the Constitutional Assembly

1931-32 Repression by the British and resumption of the Struggle. Gandhiji arrested

1932 Poona Agreement guaranteeing Reserved Seats for the Scheduled Castes and Tribes

1933 Gandhiji on fast for 21 days for the cause of the Harijans

1934 Gandhiji withdraws from the Congress

1934 Congress Constitution amended to make Non-Violence and Khadi its fundamental creeds


1935 LUCKNOW PT JAWAHARLAL NEHRU
1936 FAIZPUR PT JAWAHARLAL NEHRU
1937    
1938    
1939 HARIPURA SUBHAS CHANDRA BOSE
1940 TRIPURA SUBHAS CHANDRA BOSE
1941    
1942    
1943    
1944    
1945 MEERUT ACHARYA J.B. KRIPALANI
1946  
   

After Freedom


The Congress Message Enunciated By Pt Nehru – “Political Freedom Having Been Attained Through Non-Violent Action Under The Leadership Of Gandhi, The National Congress Now Has To Labour For The Attainment Of Social And Economic Freedom So That Progress And Equal Opportunity May Come To All The People Of India Without Any Distinction Of Race Or Religion”


  • The Demand For Immediate Freedom
  • Mass Satyagraha

1955 Resolution seeking to introduce Planning for a Socialistic Pattern of Society

1955 Concept of economic and social reconstruction

1964 Demise of Prime Minister Pt Jawaharlal Nehru


1948 JAIPUR DR. PATTABHI SITARAMAYYA
1950 NASIK PURSHOTTAM DAS TANDON
1951 NEW DELHI PT JAWAHARLAL NEHRU
1953 HYDERABAD PT JAWAHARLAL NEHRU
1954 KALYANI PT JAWAHARLAL NEHRU

Towards Socialism


1955 AVADI U.N. DHEBAR
1956 AMRITSAR U.N. DHEBAR
1957 INDORE U.N. DHEBAR
1959 NAGPUR U.N. DHEBAR
1960 BANGALORE NEELAM SANJEEVA REDDY
1961 BHAVNAGAR NEELAM SANJEEVA REDDY
1962 PATNA NEELAM SANJEEVA REDDY
1964 BHUBANESHWAR K. KAMARAJ

The Advent Of Smt Indira Gandhi


  • The Demand For Immediate Freedom
  • Mass Satyagraha

1965 Demise of Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri

1965 Smt Indira Gandhi chosen as Prime Minister

1969 Bank Nationalisation

1969 Abolition of the Princes

1969 Split in Congress over the Election of the President of India

1971 Mid-Term Poll swept by Smt. Indira Gandhi

1972 Congress gets massive victories in state elections

1975 Imposition of Emergency

1977 Loss in General Elections

1977 Congress for Democracy splits the party

1978 Split in Congress

1978 Smt Indira Gandhi sweeps state elections in Andhra and Karnataka

1980 Indira Gandhi sweeps back to power with over 300 seats in the Lok Sabha

31st October 1984 Martyrdom of Smt Indira Gandhi


1965 DURGAPUR K.KAMARAJ
1966 JAIPUR K. KAMARAJ
1968 HYDERABAD S. NIJALINGAPPA
1969 FARIDABAD S. NIJALINGAPPA
1969 BOMBAY JAGJIVAN RAM
1971    
1972 CALCUTTA DR. SHANKAR DAYAL SHARMA
1975 CHANDIGARH DEV KANT BOROOAH
1977    
1978 NEW DELHI INDIRA GANDHI
1980   INDIRA GANDHI
1983 CALCUTTA  
1984    

Towards The Twenty First Century


  • 1984 Shri Rajiv Gandhi leads the Congress to an unprecedented Victory of 401 seats in the Lok Sabha
  • 1984 Shri Rajiv Gandhi leads the Congress to an unprecedented Victory of 401 seats in the Lok Sabha

Attempt to solve long pending disputes :


  • Mizo Accord
  • Assam Accord
  • Punjab Accord
  • Historic visit to China

1965 DURGAPUR K.KAMARAJ

“A century of achievements ends. A century of endeavour beckons to us. Our resplendent civilization with unbroken continuity from the third millennium B.C. looks ahead to peaks of excellence in the third millennium A.D.

It fails to us to work for India’s greatness. A great country is not one which merely has a great past, Out of that past must arise a glorious future.

Let us build an India.

  • Proud of her independence;
  • powerful in defence of her freedom;
  • strong, self-reliant in agriculture, industry and front-rank technology;
  • united by bonds transcending barriers of caste, creed and region;
  • liberated from the bondage of poverty, and of social and economic inequality;

An India

  • disciplined & efficient;
  • fortified by ethical and spiritual values;
  • a fearless force for peace on earth;
  • the School of the world, blending the inner repose of the spirit with material progress;
  • a new civilization, with the strength of our heritage, the creativity of the spring time of youth and the unconquerable spirit of our people.

Great achievements demand great sacrifices. Sacrifices not only from our generation and generations gone by, but also from generations to come.Civilizations are not built by just one or two generations. Civilizations are built by the ceaseless toil of a succession of generations. With softness and sloth, civilizations succumb. Let us beware of decadence.We must commit ourselves to the demanding task of making India a mighty power in the World, with all the strength and the compassion of her great culture.


To this cause, I pledge myself.”


From the Presidential Address of Shri Rajiv Gandhi at Bombay

1984 Shri Rajiv Gandhi leads the Congress to an unprecedented Victory of 401 seats in the Lok Sabha

1991 Martyrdom of Shri Rajiv Gandhi while campaigning during Lok Sabha Elections


The Interim Years


1991 Congress comes to power on sympathy vote after the martyrdom of Shri Rajiv Gandhi

1991 P.V. Narasimha Rao chosen Congress Prime Minister

1991 Dr Manmohan Singh as Finance Minister takes first steps towards opening up the economy and making it globally competitive

1996 Congress loses General Elections

1996 P.V. Narasimha Rao resigns from Presidentship of Party

1996 Sitaram Kesri chosen as President

1997 IN THE RUN UP TO THE GENERAL ELECTIONS CONGRESS DEMORALISED AND LEADERS THREATENING TO LEAVE THE PARTY. ALL PSEPHOLOGISTS PREDICT TOTAL DISASTER FOR THE PARTY

1997 SMT. SONIA GANDHI PERSUADED TO CAMPAIGN FOR THE PARTY TO STOP IT FROM COLLAPSING ALTOGETHER


1991    
1992 TIRUPATI P.V. NARASIMHA RAO
1996    
1997 CALCUTTA SITARAM KESRI

The Resurgence Of The Party


14th March 1998 Smt. Sonia Gandhi persuaded to take over as Congress President

Congress on a wining spree. Wins state elections and forms Governments in a majority of the states:


1998    
1999    
2000    
2001 BANGALORE SMT SONIA GANDHI
2002    
2003    
2004    

28TH AND 29TH MARCH 2003 FIRST EVER CONVENTION OF ALL BLOCK CONGRESS PRESIDENTS HELD AT DELHI THRUST ON POVERTY ALLEVIATION

“CONGRESS KA HAATH GARIB KE SAATH”


7TH, 8TH AND 9TH JULY 2003 SHIMLA VICHAR MANTHAN SHIVIR SHIMLA SANKALP ADOPTED BY THE PARTY

“CONGRESS KA HAATH AAM AADMI KE SAATH”


General Elections Held In May 2004

Congress under Smt. Sonia Gandhi leads United Progressive Alliance (UPA) to victory in Elections defeating the BJP led NDA
Smt. Sonia Gandhi elected head of the Parliamentary Party
Smt. Sonia Gandhi asked to head UPA Government as Prime Minister

Smt. Sonia Gandhi Elected Head Of The Parliamentary Party

“I was always certain that if ever I found myself in the position that I am in today, I would follow my own inner voice. Today, that voice tells me I must humbly decline this post.” – Sonia Gandhi
Dr. Manmohan Singh elected head of Parliamentary Party
Dr. Manmohan Singh sworn in as Prime Minister of India on 22 May 2004